Observed and predicted increases in Southern Ocean winds are thought to upwell deep ocean carbon and increase atmospheric CO2. However, Southern Ocean dynamics affect biogeochemistry and circulation pathways on a global scale. Using idealized Massachusetts Institute of Technology General Circulation Model (MITgcm) simulations, we demonstrate that an increase in Southern Ocean winds reduces the carbon sink in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre. The increase in atmospheric CO2 due to the reduction of the North Atlantic carbon sink is shown to be of the same magnitude as the increase in atmospheric CO2 due to Southern Ocean outgassing. The mechanism can be described as follows: The increase in Southern Ocean winds leads to an increase in upper ocean northward nutrient transport. Biological productivity is therefore enhanced in the tropics, which alters the chemistry of the subthermocline waters that are ultimately upwelled in the subpolar gyre. The results demonstrate the influence of Southern Ocean winds on the North Atlantic carbon sink and show that the effect of Southern Ocean winds on atmospheric CO2 is likely twice as large as previously thought in past, present, and future climates.
Researchers in North Carolina have updated a risk assessment tool that empowers peanut farmers there to decide when a pest, weed or weather condition threatens yield enough to invest in fighting it.Along with updating the Peanut Risk Tool to be more usable in North Carolina, the work will make the resource available to extension specialists in other countries, as well, giving them the same ability to forecast risk and reward in the field. The project is funded through the Feed the Future Innovation Lab for Peanut in the University of Georgia College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences.The North Carolina Peanut Risk Tool pulls together different stresses that might impact yield in a given year, allowing extension agents and farmers to see how threats may interact with one another and to make wise decisions about inputs and other investments. A particular pest might be threatening any time, but combined with other circumstances – late planting and dry weather, for example – could be devastating in a particular year. Knowing how circumstances will work together to impact the crop can help farmers decide when to take action.The tool was originally developed around 2005 with support from the North Carolina Peanut Growers Association and the USDA. “We had a written Peanut Information Guide, but as people began having greater internet access and electronic tools became more popular, we asked whether that guide could be incorporated into a risk tool,” said David Jordan, a North Carolina State University peanut extension specialist and principal investigator of the Peanut Innovation Lab’s risk tool project and another to create production packages for peanut in Ghana.Farmers worry about individual pests and problems, but also understand how multiple circumstances working together can make circumstances worse. Weighing the big-picture risk, farmers can consider the cost and benefit of each input, but it’s challenging to see that big picture without a tool.“All of the key elements were in the (older) written guide, but searching through the various chapters for answers to complex questions about how pests and practices interact could be challenging,” Jordan said.The risk tool made analysis easier and was popular for several years, but was limited by the computer language and code used to create it. Extension specialists couldn’t update the information and maintaining the tool became more cumbersome, because only a limited number of computer coders could do it.Jordan had an idea: If scientists could modernize the North Carolina risk tool and make it so that anyone could update it, not only would North Carolina farmers benefit, but the tool also could be exported to other places and used by extension specialists and farmers facing very different challenges.“Now, people like me can update the information regularly and keep the tool current and applicable,” Jordan said. “In the process people at other institutions across theglobe can take the tool and the instructions and make their own tool.”Refining the data to go into the tool – deciding how much weight to give certain pests – can push researchers to think about how stresses compound in the field and agree on the effects.“Making the tool forces scientists to build consensus. A number has to be entered in a category and cooperating scientists have to think across subject matter disciplines and climates. That’s an important intangible that the risk tool fosters cooperation through its construction,” Jordan said.The Peanut Innovation Lab provided funding to update the North Carolina Risk Tool as part of a quick-start project commissioned when the five-year innovation lab program started in 2018.Using the platform developed at North Carolina State University as a starting point, Jordan and other PIs can apply the technology to help develop risk tools for other countries. Work already is under way to develop a risk tool for Ghana, based on good agricultural practice maps and crop calendars for the production systems in two regions of the country. The proposed project will use the experiences with risk tool development in Ghana and North Carolina to develop risk tools for Malawi, Senegal, and Uganda.
0Sanfrecce Hiroshima made it safely through to the semi-finals of the FIFA Club World Cup to set-up a showdown with River Plate thanks to a 3-0 win over TP Mazembe in Osaka.It will be the constantly-singing Sanfrecce supporters rather than rhythmical African drumming echoing around the 2002 FIFA World Cup stadium when the famous Argentine side come to town on Wednesday, although the Africans certainly contributed to an enthralling and open game.Both teams signalled their attacking intent from the first whistle. Yoshifumi Kagawa hit a curling drive from the left hand side of the area which whistled past Sylvain Gbohouo’s upright. Then at the other end Roger Assale’s drive from the edge of the box was turned around the post. The TP Mazembe midfielder swung in an inswinging corner and Salif Coulibaly glanced a header which flashed just wide.Despite the Africans looking more likely to score, it was Sanfrecce who should have taken the lead. Robbing Boubacar Diarra in the centre of the park, Kazuyuki Morisaki strode forward and hit the perfect pass for Hisato Sato to run on to. The Japanese international only had the keeper to beat, but rushed his chance and opted for power rather than placement and his effort ballooned well over the bar.Assale was at the heart of most things for the African champions, constantly probing in key areas and he tested Takuyo Hayashi twice from distance as the half drew to a close. Yet, on the 44th minute, the J. League champions took the lead. Yusuke Chajima’s low corner from the right was flicked across the six-yard box by the head of Sho Sasaki and Shiotani was on hand to stab the ball home from close range. Thomas Ulimwengu made an introduction for TP Mazembe at half-time and almost had an instant impact. The young Tanzanian ran 40 yards with the ball at pace before firing a drive, which although had Hayashi beaten, missed the target. He also went close with a hook shot following a free-kick as the Africans searched for an equaliser.Sato came close to scoring again when he was inches away from connecting with Mihael Mikic’s drive from the edge of the box, but on the 56th minute Hajime Moriyasu’s side doubled their advantage when Kazuhiko Chiba rose highest in a crowded area to head home another Chajima corner.Arguably TP Mazembe’s best two players on the night, Adama Traore and Assale almost combined to devastating effect, but the latter’s spectacular overhead kick from close range flew over the crossbar. With CAF Champions League winners trying to get back in the game, gaps were appearing which Sanfrecce looked to exploit and Douglas was presented with two one-on-one opportunities, but couldn’t find a way past Gbohouo.It was a breakaway which led to Sanfrecce’s third. Mikic’s cross from the right was nodded home by Asano nine minutes from time to start the celebrations. The commiserations must go to TP Mazembe, who like Club America in the day’s earlier game, must raise themselves for the match for fifth place, also at this famous arena on Wednesday.– Follow Joy Sports on Twitter: @Joy997FM. Our hashtag is #JoySports